This website provides results and additional documentation regarding the BASIC project.

The BASIC Project Final Report

Strengthening the capacity of developing countries to prepare for and participate in negotiations on future actions under the UNFCCC and its Kyoto Protocol
September 2007

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Final papers

This is a list of the papers arising from the BASIC Project. The papers were designed to contribute to capacity development and to advance discussion of climatepolicy, nationally and internationally, and do not represent the views of the BASIC Project Team as a whole.

Task 1 - Energy, mitigation and sustainable development: linking modelling to policy (China Team)

Task 1 of the BASIC Project involves two components: enhancing analytic expertise within China to engage in economic modelling and understanding how climate mitigation considerations can be better incorporated into China's national developmental plans and environmental protection measures and what can be done internationally to support this.

The China BASIC Team completed six papers covering these issues and hosted an international workshop in Beijing in February 2006. One of the major policy relevant conclusions of this work is that given the state of modelling capacity today and what is going on in the Chinese economy, China is unlikely to be able to take on national greenhouse gas targets of the kind taken on richer countries under the Kyoto Protocol. The work by the BASIC Team suggests a more explicit focus on incorporation of climate change into development processes and greater international cooperation to advance joint technological innovation.

Energy Models in China, a Literature Survey
Fei Teng, Alun Gu and Maosheng Duan, Tsinghua University, China, 2007

A Preliminary Analysis of Modelling Results Relevant to China from the International Emission Scenarios Database
Ying Chen, Jiahua Pan and Guiyang Zhuang, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Lu Xuedu, Ministry of Science and Technology, China

Energy Requirements for Satisfying Basic Needs, China as a case for Illustration
Jiahua Pan and Xianli Zhu, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, China, 2007

The Role of Policies and Measures for Climate Mitigation in China
Rob Bradley and Hilary McMahon, World Resources Institute, USA, 2007

Technology Transfer by CDM Projects
Erik Haites, Margaree Consultants Inc., Canada, Maosheng Duan, Tsinghua University, China, Stephen Seres, Climate Change Analyst/Economist, Canada, 2006

Climate Change Impacts, Vulnerability and Adaptation in China
Li Yue, Xiong Wei and Wu Yanjuan, Institute of Environment and Sustainable Development for Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 2007

Task 2 - Adaptation and vulnerability, tools and approaches (India Team)

There is increased realization within the scientific and policy community that greater attention must be give to adaptation in both developed and developing countries.  Task 2 of the BASIC Project led by the India team, focused on adaptation to climate change. India was chosen as the focus of VA work by BASIC as it has a wide range of geographic features include mountainous areas (Himalayas), coastal areas, northern plains, a peninsular plateau and islands. The premise was that India’s varied soils, climate, biodiversity and ecological regions would generate vulnerability and adaptation tools and methodologies that could be relevant outside the Indian context.

The BASIC India Team undertook research to help develop conceptual frameworks, methodologies and tools to map vulnerability and adaptation. In addition, a major international workshop was held on these topics in New Delhi in May 2006 which sought to link vulnerability and adaptation research with policy. 

The India Team’s work has resulted in four papers and a report of the international workshop that summarizes key lessons for policymakers.

Lessons Learnt for Vulnerability and Adaptation Assessment from India’s First National Communication
Sumana Bhattacharya, Winrock International, India, 2007

Handbook of Current and Next Generation Vulnerability and Adaptation Assessment Tools
Amit Garg, Ashish Rana and P.R. Shukla, Energy Environment Analytics Limited India, Manmohan Kapshe, Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology, India, with contributions from K Narayanan, D. Parthasarathy and Unmesh Patnaik, Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay, India 2007

Vulnerability to Drought, Cyclones and Floods in India
Sumana Bhattacharya and Aditi Das, Winrock International, India, 2007

Disaster Prevention, Preparedness and Management, and Linkages with Climate Change Adaptation
Anand Patwardhan and Meeta Ajit, Technology and Information Forecasting Assessment Council, India, 2007

Final Report of the International Workshop on Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climate Change, From Practice to Policy
11-12 May 2006, New Delhi, Winrock International, India, 2007

Task 3 - Policy coherence, institutional coordination and the CDM (South Africa Team)

Task 3 of the BASIC Project, led by the South Africa Team, focuses on policy coherence and institutional coordination, including issues relating to the CDM. This involves looking at the institutional and market design issues arising from the CDM. It also focuses on broader legal and institutional issues raised by deepening the process of UNFCCC and Kyoto implementation in South Africa. This includes an examination of the role of its National Committee on Climate Change in directing implementation efforts and a detailed analysis of how South African legislation might be used to support climate mitigation actions in South Africa.

The South Africa Team’s work has resulted in four papers. As well as undertaking research related to their papers, the BASIC South Africa Team supported South Africa’s Department of Environment and Tourism (DEAT) convene a major 3 day National Climate Change Conference which bought together national and international experts to discuss climate mitigation and adaptation policy. Presentations from the BASIC Workshops in South Africa held in October 2005 can be downloaded here.

A Prompt Start for the CDM? Lessons from Early Experiences from South Africa
Shirene Rosenberg, The City of Cape Town, South Africa, 2006

Options for Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Mechanisms in South African Legislation
Catherine Warburton, Andrew Gilder, Sibusiso Shabalala and Melissa Basterfield, IMBEWU Enviro-Legal Specialists (Pty) Ltd, South Africa, 2007

Climate Policy Coherence and Institutional Coordination: Clarifying Institutional Responsibilities
Mike Goldblatt and Julie Middleton, Palmer Development Group, South Africa, 2007

Climate Policy Coherence and Institutional Coordination for South Africa: an Overview of Challenges and Responses
Mike Goldblatt, Palmer Development Group, South Africa, 2007

Climate Mitigation and South African Policy & Strategy: Materials and Lessons From International Jurisdictions, Companion Resource Guide to BASIC Paper 12, Options for Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Mechanisms in South African Legislation
Catherine Warburton, Andrew Gilder, Sibusiso Shabalala and Melissa Basterfield, IMBEWU Enviro-Legal Specialists (Pty) Ltd, South Africa, 2007

Task 4 - Designing international climate change policy and enhancing negotiations skills (Brazil Team)

The complexity of climate negotiations makes it difficult for developing countries to keep track of developments and to participate proactively in defining future international climate policy. Task 4 of the BASIC Project, led by the Brazil team, focused on developing capacity for future international climate negotiations concerning the UNFCCC and Kyoto Protocol, particularly on how to ensure the post-2012 frameworks support the development of developing countries. 

A major workshop on future international climate policy was convened by the University of Sao Paulo, the Institute of Advanced Studies and BASIC in August 2006. The workshop considered the Sao Paulo Proposal for an Agreement on Future International Climate Policy. The agreement sets out a balanced and comprehensive framework for developed and developing countries and looks at how mitigation and adaptation can support sustainable development worldwide. This was presented at COP 11 in Nairobi and at the May 2007 meetings of the UNFCCC Subsidiary Bodies in Bonn. 

The Brazil Team has produced a number of papers that contribute to the progressive development of climate policy from the viewpoint of developing countries and that help developing country policymakers participate effectively in international negotiations.

History and Status of the International Climate Change Negotiations on a Future Climate Agreement
Niklas Höhne Ecofys, Gylvan Meira Filho, Institute of Advanced Studies, Sara Moltmann, Ecofys, Jacques Marcovitch, Institute of Advanced Studies, Farhana Yamin, Institute of Development Studies, UK, 2007

Next Steps for Developing Countries: Issues and Options for a Montreal Mandate
Farhana Yamin, Institute of Development Studies, UK, 2005

The Sao Paulo Proposal for an Agreement on Future International Climate Policy
BASIC Task 4 Team, BASIC Project, Institute of Development Studies, UK, September 2007

BASIC Side Event and Presentations at SB 26, Bonn, Germany

The BASIC Team gave a presentation on the Sao Paulo Proposal at a side event on 16 May 2007

IISD Special Report on Selected Side Events of the twenty-sixth sessions of the Subsidiary Bodies (SB 26), 16 May 2007 (download, see page 4)

BASIC Side Event and Presentations at COP-12/COPMOP-2, Nairobi, Kenya.

The BASIC Team gave a presentation on the Sao Paulo Proposal (download) at a side event on 11 November 2006. 

The full Sao Paulo Proposal discussion paper can be downloaded here.

IISD Special Report on Selected Side Events of the COP-12, COP/MOP-2, 11 Nov. 2006 (download)

Fifth project meeting 9 August 2006 at the Institute of Advanced Studies, University of Sao Paulo, Brazil  (See the workshop agenda)

Basic workshop 9 August 2006 on “Future international climate policy” 

The BASIC project team presented the Sao Paulo Proposal for an Agreement on Future International Climate Policy

News coverage of the meeting: O Estrado de Sao Paulo, 10 August, 2006 (English version, Portuguese version)

Other presentations of the Sao Paulo meeting:

Fourth project meeting 11 - 12 May 2006 in New Delhi / India (See the workshop agenda)

Basic workshop 11 - 12 May 2006 on “Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climate Change: From Practice to Policy.”

Inaugural Session:


  • Kinsuk Mitra, Winrock International India: Welcome and introduction on the workshop
  • Farhana Yamin, University of Sussex: About BASIC
  • Abigail Howells, European Commission: Welcome address by the European Commission
  • Jyoti Parikh, Integrated Research and Action for Development: Concepts and insights on vulnerability assessment and adaptation
  • Shri Naresh Dayal, Government of India: India's perspective on adaptation

Session I: Adaptation: Emerging science, financing and policy issues

This session brings to the fore the emerging understanding of the science of climate change, impacts, vulnerability and the adaptation concerns. This forms the starting point of the discussions on adaptation and as the entire debate of climate change is driven by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, the workshop gives an overview of the meaning of adaptation in the context of this Convention. This session also looks into the financing opportunities for adaptation projects through the various mechanisms available.


Session II: Vulnerability & Adaptation:  Methods, Technologies & Tools

Methods and tools to assess impacts of, and vulnerability and adaptation to, climate change are the key to enhance our knowledge on adaptation needs and requirements to address the adverse impacts of climate change. This workshop reviews some of the best practices; methods, technologies and financial tools developed globally and in India to evaluate the adaptation needs and address the climate related disasters to improve the resilience of the communities to such disasters.


Session III: Sectoral and Thematic Perspective on Vulnerability & Adaptation

Water resources, agriculture and ecosystem services are highly dependent on the climate and any threat in the form of climate change to these systems is a threat to the sustainable development of mankind.  India being a developing country is resource constrained, and therefore needs to enhance its capacities to address the adverse impacts of climate change in the future and needs to prioritize the impacts, so that careful planning can go into addressing such impacts using the full capacity at its disposal. Through this workshop, some of the adaptation concerns of the key sectors like agriculture, biodiversity and ecosystem services were explored to understand the management needs to adapt to the likely changes in climate in the future.


Session IV: Indian Adaptation Experiences: Practices to Policy

The challenge facing nations now is to mainstream adaptation concerns into policy making, for facilitating the process of adaptation to climate change at local and national levels. Managing risks is a multilevel process that requires mechanism for spreading and pooling the impacts of smaller scale disruptions on the system as a whole so that growth and conservation phases don’t increase rigidity and ultimately vulnerability. The Indian adaptation experiences to be presented in this session identifies the practices for managing and sharing some of the adverse impacts of current climate variability. Further the session also focuses on as to how such learning experiences can lead to building of future climate policy.


Session V: Adaptation Experience in BASIC Countries: Practices to Policy


Third project meeting 17 - 18 February  2006 in Beijing / China (See the workshop agenda)

Basic Event: 17 February 2006. 
Basic workshop on “International Climate Policy Post 2012: Quantitative Tools  & Negotiating Capacity.” 

This workshop provided an introduction and ‘hands-on’ experience with some of the models currently being used to quantify the economic and other implications of different international climate policy regimes post 2012. The following models were covered: CAIT tool developed by WRI, the EVOC model developed by Ecofys & the FAIR model developed by MNP/RIVM.


Basic Event: 18 February 2006. 
Basic Workshop on “Linking Climate Mitigation Policy and Modeling in China.” 

The workshop examined the state of energy and Economic modeling in China and the policy implications of incorporating climate mitigation policies in China’s economic and social development. The workshop provided an opportunity for Chinese modelers and climate policy experts to engage with international experts, including those participating in the IPCC WG III Lead Authors meeting in Beijing. It was also launched a longer term network of organizations and individuals interested in future collaboration work on modeling an climate policy in China.


BASIC Side Event and Presentations at COP-11/COPMOP-1, Montreal, Canada.

The BASIC Team gave presentations on the CDM, developing countries and future climate policy. Read Shirene Rosenberg's paper on early lessons from South Africa for the CDM. A report of the BASIC side-event can be found in Earth Negotiations Bulletin On the Side Summary of Side events .

Second project meeting: 16 to 19 October 2005, Johannesburg, South Africa (Agenda).

The meeting took place in conjunction with the National Climate Change Conference. Presentations from BASIC Team Members at the National Climate Change Conference.

Task 1 Energy, mitigation and sustainable development: linking modeling to policy 

Task 2 Adaptation, vulnerability and finance: assessment tools and approaches 

Task 3 Policy coherence and institutional coordination: clarifying institutional responsibilities including for CDM 

Task 4 Designing international climate policy and enhancing negotiations skills 

Quantitative tools

Task 5 Creation of developing country expert group or other institutional mechanism(s) to bring together developing country reprensentatives and climate policy expertise on along term basis

A Daily Journal and a Press Release of the National Climate Change Conference is available for 

Project kick-off meeting: 22 to 24 March 2005, Paris

The meeting took place in conjunction with the OECD Annex I expert group meeting.
See some images of the project team